Leuthardt Lab

Understand brain computer interface (BCI) devices and implications in regard to patient care.

Leuthardt Lab

The most common technical term for these types of devices is brain computer interface or BCI. Other synonymous terms include motor neuroprosthetics, direct brain interface (DBI), brain machine interface (BMI) and neurorobotics. Most simply put, these are machines that create a new output channel from the brain other than the natural motor and hormonal commands.

Brain computer interfaces recognize some form of electrophysiological alteration in the brain of a subject and use these changes as signals to either communicate with or control some element of the outside world that is consistent with the intentions of that subject. Concrete examples of such applications would be some type of brain signal controlling a cursor on a computer screen, a prosthetic limb or one’s own limb. These types of devices hold tremendous promise for improving the quality of life of individuals who are cognitively intact yet motor impaired. This includes patients with spinal cord injury, stoke or neuromuscular disorders, and amputees. These are patients for whom, up to now, the field of neurosurgery has not been able to offer any substantive intervention. Moreover, these populations are increasing in size and relevance because of the aging population and improved survival after stroke and trauma.

Now, with the improved understanding of the electrophysiological underpinnings of motor-related cortical function, rapid development of inexpensive and fast computing, and a growing awareness of the needs of the severely motor impaired, the notion of a practical and clinically viable BCI is beginning to deserve serious consideration. It will be essential for the neurosurgical community to understand what these devices are and their implications in regard to patient care. This will require a fundamental framework of how these systems operate, what the current BCI platforms and their limitations are, relevant issues when applied clinically, and discerning the important milestones for their evolution as they move toward entering standard neurosurgical practice.


Brain Computer Interfaces (BCIs) for Stroke

As stroke-BCI rehabilitation is growing in its potential as a therapeutic tool, there have been numerous methodological approaches employed. Various signal substrates and effectors have been used to maximize the patient’s plasticity and functional recovery. A deliberate and mechanism-driven approach to the development of these types of technologies for a given stroke-type is sorely needed. This heterogeneity in approach is in large part due to current limitations in existing animal models and limitations in mechanistic imaging studies in humans. The Leuthardt Lab (in conjunction with the Moran, Corbetta and Carter labs) is working towards several efforts that will more comprehensively define the impact of stroke on the brain and mechanistically defined approaches for neural interfaces that can induce a functional recovery. This includes developing a primate model for stroke rehabilitation that will integrate MRI-invisible BCI implants, advanced MR imaging, and state-of-the-art neuroprosthetic techniques. We are also studying human stroke survivors. Studies include both the use of a noninvasive BCI that engages the uninjured side of the brain to control the stroke-affected hand and advanced functional imaging to evaluate the impact on neural circuitry. Cumulatively, both the science and technology created by this project will provide critical insights and new research capabilities that will enhance neuroprosthetic treatment strategies for deep white matter stroke and ultimately reduce the individual suffering and collective burden of this disease.

Advanced Brain Mapping for Neurosurgery

Stereotactic neuronavigation currently is routinely utilized during the resection of brain tumors. This technology has been shown to improve the extent of tumor resection and, as a result, improve survival statistics. That said, it is not routine during resections to make use of similar neuronavigation displays that reflect the functional organization of the brain. Hence, the neurosurgeon often has very little insight into what cognitive functions may be compromised by the operative procedure. Task-based fMRI has been employed as a means of preoperatively localizing function. However, task-based fMRI critically depends on the patient’s ability to comply with the task paradigm, which frequently is lacking; consequently, this procedure often does not provide useful information. Moreover, task-based fMRI conventionally is restricted to mapping the representation of motor and speech function, which omits other important functions, e.g., executive function. During the past several years, it has been shown that the representation of multiple motor, sensory, and cognitive functions can be mapped by analysis of intrinsic brain activity, acquisition of which requires only that the patient hold still during fMRI. Even the waking state during fMRI is not required as essentially the same functional maps are obtained even if the patient is asleep or sedated. Thus, “resting state” fMRI (rsfMRI) provides a much more complete functional map of the brain than does task-based fMRI; moreover, rsfMRI is more reliable and much more time-efficient. In the Leuthardt lab, we are using advanced analytic techniques to create  software packages that seamlessly and automatically analyze resting state fMRI data and generate maps of multiple canonical brain networks (i.e., somatomotor, language, ventral attention, dorsal attention, default mode, visual, and frontoparietal control). These maps then can be easily viewed together with anatomical information as the surgeon plans the operative approach prior to surgery and makes ongoing surgical decisions during the resection. Further, these maps can be used to guide numerous types of therapeutic interventions in the future. We anticipate that this technology will lead to improved cognitive status outcomes and decreased morbidity after neurosurgical resections of malignant brain tumors. 

Minimally Invasive Laser-Based Surgery

We use an FDA-approved procedure known as MRI-guided laser interstitial therapy. This technique uses imaging and a laser to target specific damaged regions of the brain. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the operating room to visualize the brain, neurosurgeons drill a hole the width of a pencil through the patient’s skull until they reach the site of the diseased tissue (e.g., a brain tumor). Using a special laser probe guided through this hole, they direct the laser to “cook” the cancer or other diseased cells that lie deep within the brain and can’t be accessed by regular surgical techniques. This highly targeted therapy leaves the healthy surrounding brain tissue undamaged, which allows the patient to recover in a much shorter time than traditional brain surgery. The whole procedure generally requires only a one- to two-day hospital stay with minimal pain and scarring.

We are studying the manner in which this technique can be optimized and the impact it has on the brain for other therapies, specifically the way that laser therapy can improve chemo- and immunotherapy.  We have several clinical trials examining the manner in which laser therapy optimized clinical outcomes of patients with malignant brain tumors receiving either chemotherapy or immunotherapy. 

WashU Brain Laser Center Website


Eric C. Leuthardt, MD


Daniel Moran, PhD
Joshua Shimony, MD, PhD
Abraham Snyder, MD, PhD
Daniel Marcus, PhD
Maurizio Corbetta, MD
Jin-Moo Lee, MD, PhD
Alexandre Carter, MD, PhD
Guy Genin, PhD
Catherine Lang
Edward Boyden, PhD

Coordinator/Lab Manager:
Dana Glass, Administrative 

314-747-6146 (office)
314/362-3649 (lab)

CINT website  


NIH/NCI 1 R01 CA203861
Augmented Neurosurgical Navigation Software Using Resting State MRI
Role: PI (Multi PI – Leuthardt and Shimony)

NIH/NIMH   1R01MH096482-01
Electrophysiologic Studies of Human Attention.
Role: PI (Multi PI – Leuthardt and Corbetta)

NIH/R24 MH106075-01
Vascular Interfaces for Brain Imaging and Stimulation
Role: Co-Investigator 

P50 MH109429
Neurobiology and Dynamics of Active Sensing
Role: Co-Investigator


Brain Computer Interfaces & Stroke

  1. Bundy DT, Souders L, Baranyai K, Leonard L, Schalk G, Coker R, Moran DW, Huskey T, Leuthardt EC. Contralesional Brain-Computer Interface Control of a Powered Exoskeleton for Motor Recovery in Chronic Stroke Survivors.  Stroke. 2017 May 26. Pii: STROKEAHA. 116.016304. doi: 10.1161. PMID:  28550098
  2. Pahwa M, Kusner M, Hacker CD, Bundy DT, Weinberger KQ, Leuthardt EC. Optimizing the Detection of Wakeful and Sleep-Like States for Future Electrocorticographic Brain Computer Interface Applications.  PLoS One. 2015 Nov 12; 10(11): e0142947.  PMID:  26562013
  3. Anderson NR, Blakely T, Brunner P, Krusienski DJ, Moran DW, Leuthardt EC. High-frequency spectral changes in Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex for potential neuroprosthetics.  Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2013;2013:2247-50. Doi: 10.1109/EMBC.2013.6609984.  PMID:  24110171
  4. Holmes CD, Wronkiewicz M, Somers T, Liu J, Russell E, Kim D, Rhoades C, Dunkley J, Bundy D, Galboa E, Leuthardt E. IpsiHand Bravo: an improved EEG-based brain-computer interface for hand motor control rehabilitation. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2012;2012:1749-52. doi: 10.1109/EMBC.2012.6346287. PubMed PMID: 23366248.
  5. Bundy DT, Wronkiewicz M, Sharma M, Moran DW, Corbetta M, Leuthardt EC. Using ipsilateral motor signals in the unaffected cerebral hemisphere as a signal platform for brain-computer interfaces in hemiplegic stroke survivors. J Neural Eng. 2012  Jun;9(3):036011. doi: 10.1088/1741-2560/9/3/036011. Epub 2012 May 22.
  6. Schalk G, Leuthardt EC. Brain-computer interfaces using electrocortiographic signals. IEEE Rev Biomed Eng. 2011;4:150-54. Doi: 1109/RBME.2011.2172408. Review.  PMID: 22273796
  7. Fok S, Schwartz R, Wronkiewicz M, Holmes C, Zhang J, Somers T, Bundy D, Leuthardt E. An EEG-based brain computer interface using electrocorticographic signals.  Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2011;2011:6277-80. doi: 10.1109/IEMBS.2011.6091549.  PMID: 22255773
  8. Breshears JD, Gaona CM, Roland JL, Sharma M, Anderson NR, Bundy DT, Freudenburg ZV, Smyth MD, Zempel J, Limbrick DD, Smart WD, Leuthardt EC.  Decoding motor signals from the pediatric cortex:  implications for brain-computer interfaces in children. Pediatrics.  2011 Jul; 128 (1): e160-8. Doi: 10.1542/peds.2010-1519. Epub 2011 Jun 20. PMID: 21690116.
  9. Roland J, Miller K, Freudenburg Z, Sharma M, Smyth M, Gaona C, Breshears J, Corbetta M, Leuthardt EC. The effect of age on human motor electrocorticographic signals and implications for brain-computer interface applications. J Neural Eng. 2011 Jun 10;8(4):046013.
  10. Leuthardt EC, Gaona C, Sharma M, Szrama N, Roland J, Freudenberg Z, Solis J, Breshears J, Schalk G. Using the electrocorticographic speech network to control  a brain-computer interface in humans. J Neural Eng. 2011 Apr 7;8(3):036004.  PubMed PMID: 21471638.
  11. Leuthardt EC, Schalk G, Roland J, Rouse A, Moran DW. Evolution of brain-computer interfaces: going beyond classic motor physiology. Neurosurg Focus. 2009 Jul;27(1):E4.
  12. Leuthardt EC, Freudenberg Z, Bundy D, Roland J. Microscale recording from human motor cortex: implications for minimally invasive electrocorticographic brain-computer interfaces. Neurosurg Focus. 2009 Jul;27(1):E10.
  13. Wisneski K, Anderson NR, Schalk G, Smyth M, Moran DW, Leuthardt EC. Unique cortical physiology associated with ipsilateral hand movements and neuroprosthetic implications. Stroke. 2008 Dec;39(12):3351-9.
  14. Ojemann JG, Leuthardt EC, Miller KJ. Brain-Machine Interface: Restoring Neurological Function through Bioengineering. Clinical Neurosurgery. 2007 Oct;54(23):134-6.
  15. Schalk G, Miller KJ, Anderson NR, Wilson JA, Smyth MD, Ojemann JG, Moran DW, Wolpaw JR, Leuthardt EC. Two-dimensional movement control using electrocorticographic signals in humans. J Neural Eng. 2008 Mar; 5(1):75-84.
  16. Leuthardt EC, Schalk G, Moran D, Ojemann JG. The Emerging World of Motor Neuroprosthetics: A Neurosurgical Perspective. Neurosurgery. 2006 Jul;59(1):1-14.
  17. Leuthardt EC, Miller KJ, Schalk G, Rao RP, Ojemann JG. Electrocorticography-Based Brain Computer Interface–The Seattle Experience. IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng. 2006 Jun;14(2):194-8.
  18. Leuthardt EC, Schalk G, Wolpaw JW, Ojemann JG, Moran DW. A brain-computer interface using electrocorticographic signals in humans. Journal of Neural Engineering.  2004 June: 1(2): 63-71. Epub 2004 Jun 14.  PMID: 15876624.

Advanced MR Imaging & Brain Mapping

  1. Batra P, Bandt SK, Leuthardt EC. Resting state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging integrated with intraoperative neuronavigation for functional mapping after aborted awake craniotomy. Surg Neurol Int. 2016 Feb 5;7:13. Doi: 10.4103/2152-7806.175885. eCollection 2016.  PMID: 26958419.
  2. Lee MH, Miller-Thomas MM, Benzinger TL, Marcus DS, Hacker CD, Leuthardt EC, Shimony JS.  Clinical Resting-state fMRI in the Preoperative Setting: Are We Ready for Prime Time? Top Magn Reson Imaging. 2016 Feb;25(1): 11-8. Doi: 10.1097/RMR. 0000000000000075. PMID:  26848556
  3. Leuthardt EC, Allen M, Kamran M, Hawasli AH, Snyder AZ, Hacker CD, Mitchell TJ, Shimony JS.  Resting-State Blood Oxygen Level-Dependent Functional MRI: A Paradigm Shift in Preoperative Brain Mapping.  Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 2015;93(6):427-39. Doi: 10.1159/000442424.  Epub 2016 Jan 20.  PMID:  26784290
  4. Kamran M, Hacker CD, Allen MG, Mitchell TJ, Leuthardt EC, Snyder AZ, Shimony JS.  Resting-state blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging for presurgical planning.  Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 2014 Nov;24(4):655-69. doi: 10.1016/j.nic.2014.07.009. Epub 2014 Sep 6. Review.  PMID:  25441506
  5. Mitchell TJ, Hacker CD, Breshears JD, Szrama NP, Sharma M, Bundy DT, Pahwa M,  Corbetta M, Snyder AZ, Shimony JS, Leuthardt EC. A novel data-driven approach to preoperative mapping of functional cortex using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Neurosurgery. 2013 Dec;73(6):969-82; discussion 982-3.
  6. Roland JL, Hacker CD, Breshears JD, Gaona CM, Hogan RE, Burton H, Corbetta M, Leuthardt EC. Brain mapping in a patient with congenital blindness – a case for multimodal approaches.  Front Hum Neurosci. 2013 Jul 31;7:431.
  7. Leuthardt EC, Roland J, Breshears J, Bandt SK, Shimony JS. Listening to the brain: new techniques in intraoperative brain mapping. Neurosurgery. 2013 Aug;60 Suppl 1:64-9.
  8. Hacker CD, Laumann TO, Szrama NP, Baldassarre A, Snyder AZ, Leuthardt EC, Corbetta M. Resting state network estimation in individual subjects.  Neuroimage. 2013 Jun 2. doi:pii: S1053-8119(13)00611-3. 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2013.05.108.
  9. Lee MH, Hacker CD, Snyder AZ, Corbetta M, Zhang D, Leuthardt EC, Shimony JS. Clustering of resting state networks. PLoS One. 2012;7(7):e40370. Doi:  0.1371/journal.pone.0040370.
  10. Breshears JD, Gaona CM, Roland JL, Sharma M, Bundy DT, Shimony JS, Rashid S, Eisenman LN, Hogan RE, Snyder AZ, Leuthardt EC. Mapping Sensorimotor Cortex Using Slow Cortical Potential Resting-State Networks While Awake and Under Anesthesia.  Neurosurgery. 2012 Apr 18. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 22517255.
  11. Roland J, Brunner P, Johnston J, Schalk G, Leuthardt EC. Passive real-time identification of speech and motor cortex during an awake craniotomy. Epilepsy Behav. 2010 May;18(1-2):123-8. Epub 2010 May 15.
  12. Wu M, Wisneski K, Schalk G, Sharma M, Roland J, Breshears J, Gaona C, Leuthardt EC. Electrocorticographic Frequency Alteration Mapping for Extraoperative Localization of Speech Cortex. Neurosurgery. 2010 Feb;66(2):E407-E409.
  13. Zhang D, Johnston JM, Fox MD, Leuthardt EC, Grubb RL, Chicoine MR, Smyth MD, Snyder AZ, Raichle ME, Shimony JS. Preoperative sensorimotor mapping in brain tumor patients using spontaneous fluctuations in neuronal activity imaged with functional magnetic resonance imaging: initial experience. Neurosurgery. 2009 Dec;65(6 Suppl):226-36.
  14. Breshears J, Sharma M, Anderson NR, Rashid S, Leuthardt EC. Electrocorticographic Frequency Alteration Mapping of Speech Cortex during an Awake Craniotomy: Case Report. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 2009 Nov 20;88(1):11-15.
  15. Brunner P, Ritaccio AL, Lynch TM, Emrich JF, Wilson JA, Williams JC, Aarnoutse EJ, Ramsey NF, Leuthardt EC, Bischof H, Schalk G. A practical procedure for real-time functional mapping of eloquent cortex using electrocorticographic signals in humans. Epilepsy Behav. 2009 Jun 16.
  16. Shimony JS, Zhang D, Johnston JM, Fox MD, Roy A, Leuthardt EC. Resting-state spontaneous fluctuations in brain activity: a new paradigm for presurgical planning using fMRI. Acad Radiol. 2009 May;16(5):578-83.
  17. Schalk G, Leuthardt EC, Brunner P, Ojemann JG, Gerhardt LA, Wolpaw JR. Real-time detection of event-related brain activity. Neuroimage. 2008 Nov 1;43(2):245-9. Epub 2008 Jul 29.
  18. Leuthardt EC, Miller K, Anderson NR, Schalk G, Dowling J, Miller J, Moran DW, Ojemann JG. Electrocorticographic frequency alteration mapping: a clinical technique for mapping the motor cortex. Neurosurgery. 2007 Apr;60(4 Suppl 2):260-70.


  1. Hawasli AH, Chacko R, Szrama NP, Bundy DT, Pahwa M, Yarbrough CK, Dlouhy BJ, Limbrick DD, Barbour DL, Smyth MD, Leuthardt EC. Electrophysiological Sequelae of Hemipherotomy in Ipsilateral Human Cortex. Front Hum Neurosci. 2017 Mar 30;11:149. Doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2017.00149.  PMID: 28424599
  2. Bandt SK, Leuthardt EC.  Minimally Invasive Neurosurgery for Epilepsy Using Stereotactic MRI Guidance.  Neurosurg Clin N Am.  2016 Jan;27(1):51-8. Doi: 10.1016/j.nec.2015.08.005.  Epub 2015 Oct 24.  PMID:  26615107
  3. Bandt SK, Bundy DT, Hawasli AH, Ayoub KW, Sharma M, Hacker CD, Pahwa M, Leuthardt EC. The role of resting state networks in focal neocortical seizures. PLoS One. 2014 Sep 23;9(9):e107401.
  4. Bandt SK, Werner N, Dines J, Rashid S, Eisenman LN, Hogan RE, Leuthardt EC, Dowling J.  Trans-middle temporal gyrus selective amygdalohippocampectomy for medically intractable mesial temporal lobe epilepsy in adults:  Seizure response rates, complications, and neuropsychological outcomes.  Epilepsy Behav. 2013 May 3;28(1):17-21. doi: 0.1016/j.yebeh.2013.03.020.
  5. Leuthardt EC. Diagnoses in epilepsy commonly treated with surgery. Mo Med. 2008 Sep-Oct;105(5):420-3.

Cortical Physiology

  1. Bandt SK, Roland JL, Pahwa M, Hacker CD, Bundy DT, Breshears JD, Sharma M, Shimony JS, Leuthardt EC. The impact of high grade glial neoplasms on human cortical electrophysiology.  PLoS One. 2017 Mar 20;12(3):e0173448. Doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0173448. PMID: 28319187
  2. Hacker CD, Snyder AZ, Pahwa M, Corbetta M, Leuthardt EC. Resting state electrophysiology links classic brain rhythms and large-scale functional  systems. Neuroimage. 2017 Jan 31. PMID: 28159686.
  3. Mitra A, Snyder AZ, Hacker CD, Pahwa M, Tagliazucchi E, Laufs H, Leuthardt EC, Raichle ME. Human cortical-hippocampal dialogue in wake and slow-wave sleep. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2016 Nov 1;113(44): E6868-E6876. PMID: 27791089
  4. Hawasli AH, Kim D, Ledbtter NM, Dahiya S, Barbour DL, Leuthardt EC. Influence of White and Gray Matter Connections on Endogenous Human Cortical Oscillations. Front Hum Neurosci. 2016 Jun 28;10:330. PMID: 27445767.
  5. Bundy DT, Pahwa M, Szrama N, Leuthardt EC. Decoding three-dimensional reaching movements using electrocorticographic signals in humans. J Neural Eng. 2016 Apr;13(2):026021. Doi: 10.1088/171-2560/13/2/026021. Epub 2016 Feb 23. PMID:  26902372
  6. Bundy DT, Zellmer E, Gaona CM, Sharma M, Szrama N, Hacker C, Freudenburg ZV, Daitch A, Moran DW, Leuthardt EC. Characterization of the effects of the human dura on macro- and micro-electrocorticographic recordings. J Neural Eng. 2014F eb;11(1):016006. PubMed PMID: 24654268.
  7. Freudenburg ZV, Gaona CM, Sharma M, Bundy DT, Breshears JD, Pless RB, Leuthardt EC. Fast-scale network dynamics in human cortex have specific spectral covariance patterns. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Mar 10.
  8. Daitch AL, Sharma M, Roland JL, Astafiev SV, Bundy DT, Gaona CM, Snyder AZ, Shulman GL, Leuthardt EC**, Corbetta M. Frequency-specific mechanism links human brain networks for spatial attention. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Nov26;110(48):19585-90. **Co-Last Author**
  9. Ritaccio A, Beauchamp M, Bosman C, Brunner P, Chang E, Crone N, Gunduz A, Gupta D, Knight R, Leuthardt E, Litt B, Moran D, Ojemann J, Parvizi J, Ramsey N,  Rieger J, Viventi J, Voytek B, Williams J, Schalk G. Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Advances in Electrocorticography. Epilepsy Behav. 2012  Dec;25(4):605-13. doi: 10.1016/j.yebeh.2012.09.016. Epub 2012 Nov 14. PubMed PMID: 23160096.
  10. Anderson NR, Blakely T, Schalk G, Leuthardt EC, Moran DW. Electrocorticographic (ECoG) correlates of human arm movements. Exp Brain Res. 2012 Nov;223(1):1-10. doi: 10.1007/s00221-012-3226-1. Epub 2012 Sep 22. PubMed PMID: 23001369.
  11. Leuthardt EC, Pei XM, Breshears J, Gaona C, Sharma M, Freudenberg Z, Barbour D, Schalk G. Temporal evolution of gamma activity in human cortex during an overt and covert word repetition task. Front Hum Neurosci. 2012;6:99. Epub 2012 May 3.  PubMed PMID: 22563311; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3342676.
  12. Gunduz A, Brunner P, Daitch A, Leuthardt EC, Ritaccio AL, Pesaran B, Schalk G. Decoding covert spatial attention using electrocorticographic (ECoG) signals in humans. Neuroimage. 2012 Feb 16;60(4):2285-2293
  13. Gunduz A, Brunner P, Daitch A, Leuthardt EC, Ritaccio AL, Pesaran B, Schalk G. Neural correlates of visual-spatial attention in electrocorticographic signals in humans. Front Hum Neurosci. 2011;5:89. Epub 2011 Sep 24. PubMed PMID: 22046153; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3202224.
  14. Pei X, Barbour DL, Leuthardt EC, Schalk G. Decoding vowels and consonants in spoken and imagined words using electrocorticographic signals in humans. J Neural Eng. 2011 Aug;8(4):046028. Epub 2011 Jul 13.
  15. Gaona, CM; Sharma, M; Freudenburg, ZV; Breshears, JD; Bundy, DT; Roland, J; Barbour, DL; Schalk, G; Leuthardt, EC. “Nonuniform High-Gama (60-500Hz) Power Changes Dissociate Cognitive Task and Anatomy in Human Cortex. Journal of Neuroscience. 9 February 2011, 31(6): 2091-2100
  16. Miller KJ, Hermes D, Honey CJ, Sharma M, Rao RP, den Nijs M, Fetz EE, Sejnowski TJ, Hebb AO, Ojemann JG, Makeig S, Leuthardt EC. Dynamic modulation of local population activity by rhythm phase in human occipital cortex during a visual search task. Front Hum Neurosci. 2010 Oct 29;4:197. PubMed PMID: 21119778; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2990655.
  17. Breshears JD, Roland JL, Sharma M, Gaona CM, Freudenburg ZV, Tempelhoff R, Avidan MS, Leuthardt EC. Stable and dynamic cortical electrophysiology of induction and emergence with propofol anesthesia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010  Dec 7;107(49):21170-5. Epub 2010 Nov 15. PubMed PMID: 21078987.
  18. Pei X, Leuthardt EC, Gaona CM, Brunner P, Wolpaw JR, Schalk G. Spatiotemporal dynamics of electrocorticographic high gamma activity during overt and covert word repetition. Neuroimage. 2010 Oct 26. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 21029784.
  19. Ritaccio A, Brunner P, Cervenka MC, Crone N, Guger C, Leuthardt E, Oostenveld R, Stacey W, Schalk G. Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Advances in Electrocorticography. Epilepsy Behav. 2010 Oct 1.
  20. Sharma M, Gaona C, Roland J, Anderson N, Freudenberg Z, Leuthardt EC. Ipsilateral directional encoding of joystick movements in human cortex. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2009;1:5502-5.
  21. Wang W, Degenhart AD, Collinger JL, Vinjamuri R, Sudre GP, Adelson PD, Holder DL, Leuthardt EC, Moran DW, Boninger ML, Schwartz AB, Crammond DJ, Tyler-Kabara EC, Weber DJ. Human motor cortical activity recorded with Micro-ECoG electrodes, during individual finger movements. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2009;1:586-9.
  22. Anderson NR, Wisneski K, Eisenman L, Moran DW, Leuthardt EC, Krusienski DJ. An offline evaluation of the autoregressive spectrum for electrocorticography. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2009 Mar;56(3):913-6.
  23. Schalk G, Kubánek J, Miller K J, Anderson NR, Leuthardt EC, Ojemann JG, Limbrick D, Moran D, Gerhardt LA, Wolpaw J R. Decoding two-dimensional movement trajectories using electrocorticographic signals in humans. Journal of Neural Engineering 2007 Sep; 4(3): 264-275.
  24. Miller KJ, Leuthardt EC, Schalk G, Rao RP, Anderson NR, Moran DW, Miller JW, Ojemann JG. Spectral changes in cortical surface potentials during motor movement. J Neurosci. 2007 Feb 28;27(9):2424-32.

Laser Interstitial Thermal Therapy 

  1. Chen G, Stang J, Jaynes M, Leuthardt E, Moghaddam M. Real-Time 3D Microwave Monitoring of Interstitial Thermal Therapy. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2017 May 8. Doi: 10.1109/TBME.2017.2702182.  PMID: 28489530
  2. Dadey DY, Kamath AA, Smyth MD, Chicoine MR, Leuthardt EC, Kim AH. Utilizing personalized stereotactic frames for laser interstitial thermal ablation of posterior fossa and mesiotemporal brain lesions: a single-institution series. Neurosurg Focus.  2016 Oct;41(4):E4. PMID: 27690652.
  3. Dadey DY, Kamath AA, Leuthardt EC, Smyth MD. Laser interstitial thermal therapy for subependymal giant cell astrocytoma: technical case report. Neurosurg Focus. 2016 Oct;41(4): E9. PMID: 27690646
  4. Leuthardt EC, Duan C, Kim MJ, Campian JL, Kim AH, Miller-Thomas MM, Shimony JS, Tran DD. Hyperthermic Laser Ablation of Recurrent Glioblastoma Leads to Temporary Disruption of the Peritumoral Blood Brain Barrier. PLoS One.  2016 Feb 24:11(2):e0148613. Doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0148613. eCollection 2016. PMID: 26910903
  5. Hawasli AH, Kim AH, Dunn GP, Tran DD, Leuthardt EC. Stereotactic laser ablation of high-grade gliomas. Neurosurg Focus. 2014 Dec;37(6):E1
  6. Hawasli AH, Bandt SK, Hogan RE, Werner N, Leuthardt EC. Laser ablation as treatment strategy for medically refractory dominant insular epilepsy: therapeutic and functional considerations. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 2014;92(6):397-404.
  7. Mohammadi AM, Hawasli AH, Rodriguez A, Schroeder JL, Laxton AW, Elson P, Tatter SB, Barnett GH, Leuthardt EC. The role of laser interstitial thermal therapy in enhancing progression-free survival of difficult-to-access high-grade gliomas: a multicenter study. Cancer Med. 2014 May 9.
  8. Hawasli AH, Bagade S, Shimony JS, Miller-Thomas M, Leuthardt EC. Magnetic resonance imaging-guided focused laser interstitial thermal therapy for intracranial lesions: single-institution series. Neurosurgery. 2013 Dec;73(6):1007-17.
  9. Hawasli AH, Ray WZ, Murphy RK, Dacey RG Jr, Leuthardt EC. Magnetic resonance imaging-guided focused laser interstitial thermal therapy for subinsular metastatic adenocarcinoma: Technical Case Report. Neurosurgery. 2011 Aug 19. PMID:  21869722.


  1. MacEwan MR, Talcott MR, Moran DW, Leuthardt EC. Novel spinal instrumentation to enhance osteogenesis and fusion: a preliminary study. J Neurosurg Spine. 2016 Apr 15: 1-10. [Epub ahead of print]. PMID: 27081709
  2. Genin GM, Rosenberg SP, Seger LM, Tran EL, Rivet DJ, Leuthardt EC. The freedom to heal: nonrigid immobilization by a halo orthosis. J Neurosurg Spine. 2014 Nov;21(5):811-6.
  3. Leuthardt EC. Developing a new model for the invention and translation of neurotechnologies in academic neurosurgery. Neurosurgery. 2013 Jan;72 Suppl 1:182-92. doi: 10.1227/NEU.0b013e318270cfec. PubMed PMID: 23254807.
  4. Limbrick DD Jr, Lake S, Talcott M, Alexander B, Wight S, Willie JT, Richard WD, Genin GM, Leuthardt EC. The baric probe: a novel long-term implantable intracranial pressure monitor with ultrasound-based interrogation. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2012 Dec;10(6):518-24. doi: 10.3171/2012.8.PEDS11565. Epub 2012 Sep 28.  PubMed PMID: 23020257.
  5. Leuthardt EC. What’s holding us back? Understanding barriers to innovation in academic neurosurgery. Surg Neurol. 2006 Oct;66(4):347-9.


  1. Chaunzwa TL, Deng D, Leuthardt EC, Tatter SB, Mohammadi AM, Barnett GH, Chiang VL. Laser Thermal Ablation for Metastases Failing Radiosurgery: A Multicentered Retrospective Study.  Neurosurgery. 2017 Ap 13: doi: 10.1093/neuros/nyx142. PMID: 28419284
  2. Sun SQ, Cai C, Murphy RK, DeWees T, Dacey RG, Grubb RL, Rich KM, Zipfel GJ, Dowling JL, Leuthardt EC, Simpson JR, Robinson CG, Chicoine MR, Perrin RJ, Huang J, Kim AH. Radiation Therapy for Residual or Recurrent Atypical Meningioma: The Effects of Modality, Timing, and Tumor Pathology on Long-Term Outcomes.  Neurosurgery.  2015 Nov 26.  PMID:  26645969.
  3. Mao DD, Gujar AD, Mahlokozera T, Chen I, Pan Y, Luo J, Brost T, Thompson EA, Turski A, Leuthardt EC, Dunn GP, Chicoine MR, Rich KM, Dowling JL, Zipfel GJ, Dacey RG, Achilefu S, Tran DD, Yano H, Kim AH. A CDC20-APC/SOX2 Signaling Axis Regulates Human Glioblastoma Stem-like Cells.  Cell Rep.  2015 Jun 23; 11 (11): 1809-21. PMID:  26074073
  4. Speirs CK, Simpson JR, Robinson CG, DeWees TA, Tran DD, Linette G, Chicoine MR, Dacey RG, Rich KM, Dowling JL, Leuthardt EC, Zipfel GJ, Kim AH, Huang J. Impact of 1p/19q codeletion and histology on outcomes of anaplastic gliomas treated with radiation therapy and temozolomide. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2015 Feb 1;91(2):268-76.
  5. Aum DJ, Kim DH, Beaumont TL, Leuthardt EC, Dunn GP, Kim AH. Molecular and cellular heterogeneity: the hallmark of glioblastoma. Neurosurg Focus. 2014 Dec;37(6):E11
  6. Badiyan SN, Markovina S, Simpson JR, Robinson CG, DeWees T, Tran DD, Linette G, Jalalizadeh R, Dacey R, Rich KM, Chicoine MR, Dowling JL, Leuthardt EC, Zipfel GJ, Kim AH, Huang J. Radiation therapy dose escalation for glioblastoma multiforme in the era of temozolomide. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2014 Nov 15;90(4):877-85.
  7. Garsa AA, Badiyan SN, DeWees T, Simpson JR, Huang J, Drzymala RE, Barani IJ, Dowling JL, Rich KM, Chicoine MR, Kim AH, Leuthardt EC, Robinson CG. Predictors of individual tumor local control after stereotactic radiosurgery for non-small cell lung cancer brain metastases. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2014 Oct 1;90(2):407-13.
  8. Sun SQ, Cai C, Murphy RK, DeWees T, Dacey RG, Grubb RL, Rich KM, Zipfel GJ, Dowling JL, Leuthardt EC, Leonard JR, Evans J, Simpson JR, Robinson CG, Perrin RJ, Huang J, Chicoine MR, Kim AH. Management of atypical cranial meningiomas, part 2: predictors of progression and the role of adjuvant radiation after subtotal resection. Neurosurgery. 2014 Oct;75(4):356-63; discussion 363.
  9. Sun SQ, Kim AH, Cai C, Murphy RK, DeWees T, Sylvester P, Dacey RG, Grubb RL,Rich KM, Zipfel GJ, Dowling JL, Leuthardt EC, Leonard JR, Evans J, Simpson JR, Robinson CG, Perrin RJ, Huang J, Chicoine MR. Management of atypical cranial meningiomas, part 1: predictors of recurrence and the role of adjuvant radiation after gross total resection. Neurosurgery. 2014 Oct;75(4):347-54; discussion 354-5; quiz 355.
  10. Lin AL, Liu J, Evans J, Leuthardt EC, Rich KM, Dacey RG, Dowling JL, Kim AH, Zipfel GJ, Grubb RL, Huang J, Robinson CG, Simpson JR, Linette GP, Chicoine MR, Tran DD. Codeletions at 1p and 19q predict a lower risk of pseudoprogression in oligodendrogliomas and mixed oligoastrocytomas. Neuro Oncol. 2014 Jan;16(1):123-30. doi: 10.1093/neuonc/not142. Epub 2013 Nov 26.
  11. Fouke SJ, Benzinger TL, Milchenko M, LaMontagne P, Shimony JS, Chicoine MR, Rich KM, Kim AH, Leuthardt EC, Keogh B, Marcus DS. The comprehensive neuro-oncology data repository (CONDR): a research infrastructure to develop and validate imaging biomarkers. Neurosurgery. 2014 Jan;74(1):88-98.
  12. Feng Y, Bayly P, Huang J, Robinson C, Du D, Mutic S, Shimony J, Leuthardt E, Okamoto R, Hu Y.  TH-C-141-05: A Simulation Study to Investigate the Potential of Using Magnetic Resonance Elastography (MRE) to Differentiate Recurrent Tumor and Radiation Necrosis.  Med Phys. 2013 Jun;40(6Part32): 540. Doi: 10.1118/1.4815773.  PMID:  28517857
  13. Hawasli AH, Buckley RT, Gao F, Limbrick DD, Smyth MD, Leonard JR, Santiago P, Stewart TJ, Park TS, Grubb RL, Dowling JL, Leuthardt EC, Rich KM, Zipfel GJ, Dacey RG, Chicoine MR.  Biopsy of the Superficial Cortex: Predictors of Effectiveness and Outcomes. Neurosurgery. 2013 Apr 29. [Epub ahead of print].  PMID: 23632761.
  14. Stone JJ, Reynolds MR, Leuthardt EC. Transient hemispatial neglect after surgical resection of a right frontal lobe mass. World Neurosurg. 2011Sep-Oct;76(3-4):361.e7-10. PubMed PMID: 21986441.
  15. Leuthardt EC, Lim CC, Shah MN, Evans JA, Rich KM, Dacey RG, Tempelhoff R, Chicoine MR. Use of Movable High-Field Strength Intraoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging with Awake Craniotomies for Resection of Gliomas. A preliminary Experience. Neurosurgery. 2011 Apr 14. PubMed PMID: 21499143.
  16. Chicoine MR, Lim CC, Evans JA, Singla A, Zipfel GJ, Rich KM, Dowling JL, Leonard JR, Smyth MD, Santiago P, Leuthardt EC, Limbrick DD, Dacey RG. Implementation and preliminary clinical experience with the use of ceiling mounted mobile high field intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging between two operating rooms. Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2011;109:97-102. PubMed PMID: 20960327.
  17. Rajaram V, Leuthardt EC, Singh PK, Ojemann JG, Brat DJ, Prayson RA, Perry A. 9p21 and 13q14 dosages in ependymomas. A clinicopathologic study of 101 cases. Mod Pathol. 2004 Jan;17(1):9-14.
  18. Leuthardt EC, Fox D, Ojemann GA, Dacey RG, Grubb RL, Rich KM, Ojemann JG. Frameless stereotaxy without rigid pin fixation during awake craniotomies. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 2002;79(3-4):256-61
  19. Leuthardt EC, Wippold FJ, Oswood MC, Rich KM. Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Preoperative Assessment of Brain Abscess. Surg Neurol. 2002 Dec;58(6):395-402; discussion 402. Review. PMID: 12517619

Book Chapters

  1. Roland, JD, Ray WR, Leuthardt EC. “Neuroprosthetics.” Yeoman’s Neurological Surgery. Elsevier, Inc., in press.
  2. Kamran M, Hacker CD, Allen MG, Mitchell TJ,  Leuthardt EC, Snyder AZ, Shimony JS. Resting state BOLD fMRI for pre-surgical planning. Neuroimaging clinics of North America.
  3. Allen MG, Snyder AZ, Hacker CD, Mitchell TJ, Leuthardt EC, Shimony JS. “Presurgical Resting State fMRI.” Medical Radiology volume “Clinical Functional MRI: Presurgical Functional Neuroimaging (2nd edn). Editor, Prof. Stippich. Springer, 2014.
  4. Leuthardt EC, Ojemann JG, Schalk G, Moran DW. “General Clinical Issues Relevant to Brain-Computer Interfaces.” Neuroengineering. Eds. Daniel DiLorenzo et al.  Boca Raton: Taylor and Francis Group, 2008
  5. Leuthardt EC, Fox DJ. “Neurosurgery Essentials.”  The Washington Manual Surgery Survival Guide. Eds. Jeremy Goodman et al. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2003.
  6. Leuthardt EC, Fox DJ. “Neurosurgery: General Approach.”  The Washington Manual Surgery Survival Guide. Eds. Jeremy Goodman et al.   Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2003.
  7. Leuthardt EC, Fox DJ. “Approach to Common Problems in Neurosurgery.” The Washington Manual Surgery Survival Guide. Eds. Jeremy Goodman et al.   Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2003.